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A routing number identifies the financial institution and the branch to which a payment item is directed. Along with the account number, it is essential for delivering payments through the clearing system. In Canada, there are two formats for routing numbers: An Electronic Fund Transactions (EFT) routing number is comprised of a three-digit financial institution number and a five-digit branch number, preceded by a "leading zero". Example : 0XXXYYYYY The electronic routing number is used for routing electronic payment items, such as direct deposits and wire transfers. MICR Numbers or widely known as Transit Numbers are used in cheques processing. It appears on the bottom of negotiable instruments such as checks identifying the financial institution on which it was drawn. A paper (MICR) routing number is comprised of a three-digit financial institution number and a five-digit branch number. It is encoded using magnetic ink on paper payment items (such as cheques). It’s your life, your family, your business and your legacy. Annett’s belief – our clients’ success will be our success. Annett’s natural ability to build trust and earn respect is part of the personal warmth she brings to her work. Her compassion and genuine interest in clients provides them with the comfort they need to have deep and meaningful discussions about their personal and financial situation. For Annett, success is measured by the trust and respect of clients and peers. It is all based on her core purpose of helping people achieve their unique potential. To do that, every day Annett lives her mission: to help individuals and families build and maintain financial confidence on the basis of their wants and needs. Annett lives in Sudbury, Ontario with her children. Susannah is a Chartered Accountant, Certified Management Accountant and Certified Financial Planner. She graduated with a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Waterloo, specializing in Chartered Accountancy. Prior to joining RBC, Susannah provided comprehensive financial planning guidance and advice to executives, business owners, professionals and high net worth families. Susannah uses a holistic approach to helping clients address all areas of their financial planning. Susannah’s role is to work with and support your Investment Advisor in preparing and presenting comprehensive Compass Financial Plans. After completing a Master of Arts degree in English at the University of Waterloo, Alessandra obtained a Juris Doctor from the University of Toronto, Faculty of Law in 2000. She was called to the Ontario bar in February of 2002, and commenced her career as a tax lawyer with the Toronto office of a prominent national law firm, completing Levels I and II of the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountants’ In-Depth Tax Course. Over her years in private practice, Alessandra served a variety of business clients and their owners ranging from technology start-ups to established manufacturing, property development and retail businesses, advising on tax and estate-planning, including wills and trusts. Alessandra is now pleased to offer her years of advisory experience to provide Will and Estate Planning services to RBC’s valued clients. As a Regional Trust Advisor, Claudia Morrison serves clients throughout the Ontario and Atlantic regions and is located in the Ottawa office. Claudia provides strong organizational and relationship-building skills to deliver comprehensive estate and trust solutions for executors, trustees and beneficiaries. Clients appreciate her ability to explain complex concepts of estate and trust administration in terms that they can relate to and with sensitivity. A graduate of Carleton University with a Bachelor of Arts Honours degree, Claudia has continued to deepen her knowledge and expertise with key industry designations such as the Personal Financial Planner (PFP) and Chartered Investment Manager (CIM) designations. She has also completed the Canadian Securities Course. Claudia has held various roles in banking, investment counselling and estate and trust administration that provide her with a unique depth of understanding around integrated solutions to meet client needs. With more than 20 years of financial services experience, Claudia brings to each client the necessary skill set to provide both the technical expertise as well as the genuine understanding of the emotional complexities that underlie these issues. Claudia understands that no two clients are the same and so together with her RBC Estate & Trust Services partners, she can find the solution that’s right for you. Rbc confederation rbc platine The Royal Bank of Canada RBC pre-dates Confederation. In 2016, it was Canada’s second-largest corporation by revenue, bringing in an estimated $42-billion. The bank has headquarters in Toronto and Montreal. Auto insurance from RBC is available in all provinces and territories except British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. RBC Royal Bank in Confederation, 15 Worobetz Place, Saskatoon, SK, S7L 6R4, Store Hours, Phone number, Map, Latenight, Sunday hours, Address, Banks Royal Bank of Canada is a strong financial institution with a rich history. We are a group of companies where a shared sense of belonging and purpose, coupled with high standards for doing the right thing for our employees, our clients and our communities, has withstood the test of time. You’ll find these stories and more captured in the pages of our history. is the story of our beginnings as a regional bank to our first steps as a diversified financial services company. Our story is told not only in terms of notable personalities and corporate strategies, but also through an exploration of our corporate culture. The book focuses on our history from incorporation in 1869 to the early 1990s and was written in celebration of our 125 Every decade has its own style and signature. The recent past has been called the digital era, one marked by accelerated advancements in technology for both business and personal use. During this era, the face of our cities and countries has become more eclectic and diversified; our world has experienced change in every aspect of daily life. It is within this context that Royal Bank continues to influence and provide leadership for the betterment of our society. Read More This section is dedicated to all Royal Bank employees who served in the First World War and the Second World War, and to those employees who contributed to the war effort on the home front. Learn More 1925, Royal Bank of Canada branch Edmonton – Jasper Ave., Alberta. This branch opened in 1901 in what was then known as the North–West Territories. Four years later, the new province of Alberta joined the Canadian Confederation (1905). Close 1910 In opening our branch in Porcupine, Ontario, staff made part of the trip in an open bobsleigh drawn by horses through bush and over frozen lakes with the temperature -56 F (equivalent to -49 C)! Please note that the information for Royal Bank of Canada, RBC In Mississauga, 4056 Confederation Parkway and all other Branches is for reference only. It is strongly recommended that you get in touch with the Branch Phone: (905) 273-3005 before your visit to double-check the details and other questions you may have. Bank Holiday Opening hours / times Easter Opening hours / times Xmas / Christmas Eve / Boxing day / New years Opening hours / times Apologies, this Branch does not provide them with a holiday to the opening times. Please contact this Branch directly Phone: (905) 273-3005 to check opening hours. We have made efforts to ensure that we have the details of all Branches are up to date. It is also possible to : Edit these OPENING HOURS of Branch Royal Bank of Canada, RBC In Mississauga, 4056 Confederation Parkway, by clicking on the link: Edit these OPENING HOURS. By clicking on the link: Edit details, to edit Street Name and number, Postcode, Telephone Number of Branch Royal Bank of Canada, RBC In Mississauga, 4056 Confederation Parkway, write us your comments and suggestions. This will help other visitors to get more accurate results.


A year is not too far ahead to start learning about what is expected of us as participants. 1 — The Centenary of Confederation Download PDF version Only once in a hundred years is one invited to the celebration of a centenary. The occasion of our centenary is not only a time to refurbish old monuments, create new amenities, and bolster existing cultural activities. It gives us an opportunity to pay attention to what is significant in the social and political and intellectual development of our country and in its present environment. We wish to know by what road our ancestors travelled to make it possible for Canada to celebrate a hundred years as a nation. The object is not to gossip about people along the way who committed errors in driving or who behaved extravagantly in office, but to learn by what path Canada emerged from the wilderness on to the relatively bright uplands she enjoys today. It was exciting in its happening and diversified enough to suit the most exacting storyteller. It was full of sharp contrasts, both in motive of exploration and method of settlement. Study of that past concerns us as children of our fathers; what we do at the time of our centenary concerns us as fathers of our children. We must not be seduced by our bravery of tall office buildings and our abundance of suburban villas into forgetting the old decaying log cabins from which our forefathers sallied forth to build our society and our economy. It is true that we cannot drive into the future looking in a rear-vision mirror, but, as the revolutionary writer Edmund Burke said: "People will not look forward to posterity who never look back to their ancestors." Who are our ancestors? Not only the people on our individual family trees, but all who have preceded us in building this nation, whether they came with Champlain's first settlers or among this century's immigrants; whether they spoke English, French, Italian, German, Ukrainian or some other language; whether they were Jewish, Catholic or Protestant; whether they were black, brown, yellow or white in colour of their skin; whether they were free-traders or protectionists; whether they were grand seigniors lording it over hundreds of acres or hard-working crofters wresting their precarious living from a patch of stony hillside; whether they were skilful craftsmen felling trees or splitting them and working the wood into chairs and pulpits and farm wagons, or proprietors of water-mills which were the first touch of industrialization brought to the wilderness. It was no disgrace in their day to have work-hardened hands, and it was not reckoned a disgrace to have enjoyed undisturbed slumber on a bed of straw and to have heaped the hay as a pillow under one's head. The men and women we recall on this centenary paid the price of what we are. Amid the flags and martial music and speeches we should bear in memory the dust-gray wagons with screeching axles, and the gees and haws of their drivers, and the graves along the way westward; the bateaux carrying the explorers and fur traders along thousands of miles through unknown land; the men and women of daring and enterprise and energy and vision. This is not to say that we must indulge in nostalgia to the point where it becomes romanticizing. Some European countries began a half century ago to do over their history into fairy-tales and heroic poetry, thus contributing to the evils of romantic nationalism. But we, who have reached a future which the cleverest of their era did not imagine, should give credit to the men and women of the tufted furniture and gas-mantle age for their advanced thinking, their tolerance, and their skill in statesmanship. When we look back upon our history we see things fixed and frozen as they happened, but everything that happened was the product of fluid circumstances. The events, both internal and world-wide, which preceded confederation, are important to our thinking because they help us to understand why Canada embarked upon this unique effort to weld two nationalities into one nation. The Canada preceding 1867 would be a strange world to us. It had none of the features we take for granted, such as great factories, large cities, highways, automobiles, airplanes, television sets, electricity. There were only a few miles of railway along the St. The people numbered about 3 million, eighty per cent of whom lived in the two provinces of Upper and Lower Canada, now Ontario and Quebec. Four-fifths of the population was rural; Montreal had about 100,000 people, and it was by far the largest city. Cultivation of the soil and the extraction of raw products from the forest and from the sea supported a small group of manufacturing, handicraft and service industries scattered through the settled areas. These industries were sheltered from foreign competition as much by isolation, the advantage of cheap local raw material and the lack of transportation as they were by the incidental protection of a tariff primarily intended for revenue. The time was marked, too, by the self-sufficiency of separate families, a needful part of the frontier nature of the economy. Material income was largely limited to the basic requirements: food, clothing and shelter. The worker could retreat at will to the farm, where he became self-reliant. This, naturally, gave the economy great capacity for adjustment to fluctuations, and tended toward insularity in people's ideas. However, pressures of population and the desire for a more abundant life gradually made themselves felt. Western expansion had been disappointing to the two Canadas. As to other parts of the country, the historical summary of the Royal Commission on Dominion-Provincial Relations in 1940 remarked: "The Maritimes, tied to a dying industry, [building wooden ships] were in even greater, if less conscious need. The tiny Red River Settlement was beginning to find its feet, but was toddling into the arms of the United States in the process. The Pacific Coast gold rush had fostered some basically sound development, but its recession had left a small population stranded with a large debt." Between 18 Canadian affairs sank to such a low level that the continued existence of Canada became a matter of considerable doubt. The adoption of free-trade by Britain, with consequent abolition of Canada's preference in British markets, gave strength to advocates of union with the United States. Internally, Canada was fretting over dozens of irritating questions which seemed incapable of solution within the governmental set-up of the time. The American War of Secession, which started in 1861, had created difficulties with the northern states. American filibusters were harassing the Canadian border. The fear of invasion was not a figment of the imagination. James Gordon Bennett's made this crystal clear in January 1861, when it forecast that the southern cotton states would "in Mexico and the tropical countries bordering the Gulf find the area which they deem necessary to provide for the rapid increase of their slave population. The Northern confederacy will seek a counterpoise to these acquisitions by absorbing Canada". Eight months later the was threatening Canada with four hundred thousand disciplined troops "who will ask no better occupation than to destroy the last vestiges of British rule on the American continent and annex Canada to the United States". As late as 1866, just a year before confederation, the threatened that when the opportunity came Britain's "American colonies will be snatched up by this Republic as quickly as a hawk would gobble a quail". Then, it forecast, the United States would have a satisfactory northern boundary, along the Arctic Ocean. be regarded as representing the opinions of the mass of thinking people in the United States, they do have to be considered as a constant irritant to Canadians of the time, breeding distrust and apprehension. Confederation meant the rejection of political and economic annexation by the United States. Standing alone, even though part of an empire, each province was too small to be an effective unit either in maintaining a position of economic stability or of withstanding armed pressure from the powerful nation to the south. and Bantam Books, Volume IV) Churchill said: "How indeed could Canada remain separate from America and yet stay alive? This was designed to establish a new nation to meet the changed conditions of British policy; to unite the scattered provinces against possible aggression; to build an east-west national economy instead of a north-south continental one; to broaden the source of livelihood so as to avert the financial and living upsets caused by reliance upon a narrow base; to preserve cultural and local loyalties and to reconcile them with political strength and solidarity. What was there to do but try to work out some arrangement whereby not a group of sparsely populated isolated provinces but a consolidated organization faced this threat? Impossible though it seemed to draw these diverse and sometimes conflicting interests together, events conspired to bring it about. Each of the separate colonies arrived at a crisis in its affairs at the same time, and confederation held out hope of relieving many worries. Canada was launched in burning hope by people who believed that they had accomplished something great. Underhill said in one of the Massey Lectures in 1963: "In 1867, our Fathers created something new, 'a new nationality'." The men who took part in the conferences preceding confederation were constrained to work together in a manner in which few of them had to work before. They were compelled to admit the necessity of compromise, of tolerance, and of simply agreeing to disagree in a pleasant fashion. Ever since the Act of Union in 1841, Upper and Lower Canada had been living in uneasy political association, constantly bickering over unequal incidence of taxation and a host of other issues. The Maritimes wanted union, but only among themselves. Representatives from Canada were sent to the Maritime conference at Charlottetown in 1864 to invite the delegates to discuss a larger union. In October the conference reconvened in Quebec, under the chairmanship of the French Premier of Upper and Lower Canada. Its 72 resolutions embodied the main lines on which confederation was finally accomplished. The financial relations between the provinces, the equitable distribution of public funds, the commercial policy, the constitution of the two houses of parliament: these and scores of other weighty matters had to be settled. It was 1866 before all was in readiness for presentation to the British Government, which received the proposal for confederation with enthusiasm. A conference, sitting in London, hammered out 69 resolutions based on those of the Quebec conference; the terms of union were approved by the British Parliament, and the formal act of union, known as the British North America Act, was passed in 1867. An outstanding feature of the united Canada was that it combined the advantages of central government with those of local autonomy. An apparatus of governmental machinery was created with headquarters in Ottawa, but at the same time the individual provinces retained their identity and their control of local affairs. The province of Quebec, for example, was enabled to preserve its institutions, its language, its religion, its customs, its civil laws, and its schools, while it received the backing of the other provinces in matters of general concern such as military and naval defence, the building of railways, postal facilities, and so forth. Confederation gave Canada unity, but it was a unity of diversity. The new nation was hailed in most of Upper and Lower Canada, lukewarmly accepted in New Brunswick, and reluctantly acceded to in Nova Scotia. Prince Edward Island preferred to remain on the outside, but came in six years later, while Newfoundland did not join the union until 1949. In 1869 Canada acquired the vast extent of the Hudson's Bay Company's territories, out of which have been carved the provinces of Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta; in 1871 British Columbia came into confederation. The first transcontinental railway opened in 1885, tying Canada together from East to West. The still yearned to seize Canada: "When the experiment of the 'dominion' shall have failed, as fail it must, a process of peaceful absorption will give Canada her proper place in the great North American Republic." In Ottawa, July first 1867 was greeted by the firing of a 101-gun salute, while all the church bells pealed; High Mass was sung in the cathedral at Trois Rivières; in Saint John, 21 guns were fired as a salute "in honour of this greatest of all modern marriages." There were some hold-outs who draped their houses in black crepe or flew their flags at half mast, but most Canadians walked that day under banners inscribed "Success to the Confederacy" or "Bienvenue à la nouvelle puissance". The British North America Act welcomed that day has not yet been beatified as has the Constitution of the United States. It is still in progress, a lively thing, not worshipped but found useful. That an agreement worked out a hundred years ago does not necessarily meet all the needs of the space age is not surprising, and we are severe judges if we reproach the Fathers for not foreseeing all that we were going to do in and to the country. If we criticize the BNA Act for establishing conditions which in recent years have come to seem worthy of change, we must also credit it with a hundred years of progress as a united nation made up of two cultures, each with its hallowed attitudes and way of life. The outcome is a more stable and sensible and enduring philosophy of life for the joint inheritors of this great land than that pictured in one of his plays by a Greek writer, in which "... two brothers With internecine conflict at a blow Wrought out by fratricide their mutual doom." To all the millions of people who have come to Canada from other lands in the years since 1867, this has been a new land, new in liberty, in opportunity and in promise. Exiles crossing the Atlantic seeking sanctuary from social, political or economic distress found here not merely a refuge but a home. This is one country where many temples may be raised to the same God. Canada tries to be what Rebecca West described as an ideal nation: A shelter where all talents are generously recognized, all forgivable oddities forgiven, all viciousness quietly frustrated, and those who lack talent honoured for equivalent contributions of graciousness. Canadian life, enfolding not only people of the founding cultures but people of many other cultures, is the art of the possible. Our world is changing every year in the grip of expanding science, expanding population, expanding expectations. To cope with change we need education, not only for our children but for adults. If adults were to keep closer to the vanguard of advancing society there would be little occasion for the protest marches of young people dismayed by the uncertainty of their future. The freedom of which we boast is not lost in shattered Dunkirks and blazing Pearl Harbours... Freedom is lost little by little in noiseless theft, a fragment of concession to expediency here, a morsel of "what does it matter? Then, shockingly, we find that freedom has disappeared in the regimentation of not only our daily doings but our eternal ambitions. The ancient philosophers recognized, and modern history has proved, that a nation survives according to its unity and power, according to the ability of its members to co-operate for common ends. This co-operation requires that we relinquish, to some extent, things and acts which might be in our individual interest. Otherwise the great forward movement will be complicated by petty wishes and blurred by sectional ambitions. We must, in fact, act as if we were a little better than ourselves. Our ideal, facing the uncertainty of the years following 1967 as our ancestors did those of 1867, might be to build a Canadianism that has full meaning. Confederation saw the coming together of three or four racial and political groups, some of whom had been bitter enemies of the others. They reached the conclusion that they had to live together, and that they needed a frame into which they would fit. They realized that we are all part of the whole, that no man, no municipality, no county, no province, can contribute effectively to Canada's well-being by working compulsively as an individual at parochial problems. That was the grandeur of the past: what of the future? We can see more light than darkness in Canada's future, but intelligent effort is needed now in order to make sure of its brightness. When an administrator in Africa rode out to inspect land that had been devastated by a storm he came to a place where giant cedars had been uprooted and destroyed. He said to his official in charge of forestry: "You will have to plant some cedars here." The official replied: "It takes two thousand years to grow cedars of the size these were. They don't even bear cones until they are fifty years old." "Then," said the administrator, "we must plant them ." Not, indeed, that we can expect to write a script in 1967 to which no postscripts need be added. Changing our ways has been a process going on in human affairs ever since the beginning of history. The object now is to move beyond old errors, not to perpetuate the memory of them; to build a good present and prepare for a better future. Plutarch tells us in his about the argument as to whether the ship in which Theseus and the youths of Athens sailed home from Crete was the same ship as that in which they set out, "for they took away the old planks as they decayed, putting in new and stronger timber in their place". Replacing old planks with new is a job for every Canadian, because everyone has an interest in seeing Canada endure. We shall gather in centennial year not merely to extol our ancestors but to take up their work and continue it as valiant men, writing our individual biographies into the history of Canada. We cannot look back, on our hundredth national birthday, on the past as nothing more than a pageant which calls for applause and gratification. As the procession of the years passes in review, each year decked with its crown of laurel leaves for achievement and its chaplet of rosemary for memories, we must not forget that 1967 will take its place in the cavalcade. History is not going to begin a new chapter: it never does: history runs on. The old principles will remain, and by acceptance of what is best. in our democracy, and by education in public affairs and by co-operation, we can continue to evolve a system of government that will provide Canadians with the best kind of life and happiness. Next year is a new year with no mistakes in it yet. Like the birth of every new day, it is a reprieve granted by the governor of time to his subjects who may have squandered a legacy of early moments. If we face it with assurance, resolved to bear turns of fortune with manful spirit and to add what good we can to the great goodness we inherited, future generations may remember us and say: "These people saw a vision in dark and troubled days, and though tyranny raged in many parts of the earth they built a shining nation out of the dust." Some people will meet this challenge by saying "We're not doing too badly," but that is a cry-baby excuse for poor success. What we should do is try to add orchids to the bouquets wrought from wild flowers by our ancestors. Engaged in that task, we may say with the Roman poet: "Let ancient times delight other folk; I rejoice that I was not born till now." The Royal Bank of Canada Monthly Letter was published from 1920 until 2008 (under the name RBC Letter). Discover the story behind this historic Canadian publication on the History and About RBC Letter. The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia.) The colony established representative government in 1864 and merged with the colony of Vancouver Island in 1866. In May 1868, Amor De Cosmos formed the Confederation League to bring responsible government to BC and to join Confederation. In September 1868, the Confederation League passed 37 resolutions outlining the terms for a union with the Dominion of Canada. The terms were passed by both the BC assembly and the federal Parliament in 1871. The colony joined Canada as the country’s sixth province on 20 July 1871. The threat of American annexation, embodied by the Alaska purchase of 1867, and the promise of a railway linking BC to the rest of Canada, were decisive factors. The area now known as British Columbia was populated after the last Ice Age. Evidence of human habitation dates back at least 14,000 years. These include the Tagish, Tsimshian, Haida, Tlingit, Kwakwaka’wakw (Kwakiutl) and Nuu-chah-nulth (Nootka). Meanwhile, the Dakelh (Carrier), Interior Salish and Ktunaxa (Kootenay) were among those nations living inland. Europeans didn’t arrive on the Pacific Coast in significant numbers until after the voyage of James Cook in 1778 and the mapping expedition of George Vancouver in the 1790s. By 1849, the land was home to about 50,000 Indigenous people and a few hundred British settlers. The settlers established the colony of Vancouver Island that year. Everything changed with the Fraser River Gold Rush. In 1858, 30,000 gold-seekers, many from the United States, raced to cash in. The influx of settlers prompted Britain to create a separate mainland colony that same year called British Columbia. ( The Fraser River Gold Rush and the Founding of British Columbia.) A form of representative government was established in BC in 1864. At the same time, the British North American colonies were debating Confederation. ( Charlottetown Conference; Quebec Conference, 1864.) In 1866, the colonies of Vancouver Island and BC were united under one legislative assembly and governor. When the Dominion of Canada was created in 1867, British Columbians debated joining the new country. Entering Confederation would help BC take on debt to pay for the building of roads and other infrastructure. It would also provide a measure of security and ensure the continuation of the British nature of the colony. This was believed to be especially important following the US purchase of Alaska that same year. The Alaska purchase sparked fears that the United States would try to annex BC to link Alaska with American territories in the Pacific Northwest. Amid these debates, Indigenous people had little or no say in their political future. Joseph Trutch, the chief commissioner of lands and works, refused to negotiate treaties with First Nations or to recognize Aboriginal title to land. ( Aboriginal Title.) Politician Amor De Cosmos, a newspaper publisher, led the movement for BC to join Confederation. De Cosmos formed the Confederation League in May 1868 to unite the colony with Canada and bring responsible government to BC. Over the course of the summer, branches were established in New Westminster, Hope, Yale and Lytton. On 14 September 1868, a meeting of 26 Confederation League delegates from across the colony was held in Yale. Nearly all of them outlined the possible terms for a union with the Dominion of Canada. Delegates agreed that Canada should pay down the colony’s debt, that the province should have a responsible government, and that a wagon road should be built to link British Columbia to the east. Delegates also wanted assurances that the province would have control over immigration, First Nations affairs, land grants, education and settlement policy. However, the Confederation League’s greatest opponents were the powerful, unelected members of BC’s colonial government. They feared for their jobs and pensions if BC became a Canadian province with a fully elected, rather than a partially appointed, legislature. As a result, when the League’s proposals were brought before the legislative council, they were defeated. Economic recession in the colony, as well as the presence of a group of settlers who favoured the annexation of BC by the United States, also hampered the Confederationists. One major obstacle to union was removed in 1869 with the death of Governor Frederick Seymour. His replacement, Anthony Musgrave, supported union. The following year, Canada also purchased Rupert’s Land and the North-West Territories from the Hudson’s Bay Company. This gave Canada control over the vast territory between the Great Lakes and BC. It cleared the way for a coast-to-coast country and, eventually, a transcontinental railway. The colony’s legislature debated Confederation in the spring of 1870. It decided, despite opposition, to seek entry into Canada without responsible government. The colony then sent a three-man delegation to Ottawa to negotiate the terms of entry. Federal leaders insisted on BC having responsible government if it became a province. They agreed to provide pensions for unelected local officials who would lose their positions in the process. Canada also agreed to take on BC’s debt, build a rail link to the Pacific Coast, and give BC the right to send three senators and six members of Parliament to Ottawa. The terms were passed by both the BC assembly and the federal Parliament in 1871. The colony joined Canada as the country’s sixth province on 20 July 1871. Construction of the Canadian Pacific Railway, a central condition of the deal, was finally started in 1878 after many delays. Rbc confederation rbc brooks landing Week 12Confederation Life & RBC Agenda • Class Administration • Group Assignment Take-up • Review of Wine Industry • Break • Canadian Financial Industry Profile • Government’s Role in Managing Risks -Financial Services Regulation • Confederation Life • Case of Merging Canadian Banks • Review RBC has the largest branch and ATM network across Canada. Use our locator tool to find the RBC branch or ATM nearest you. Branch and ATM Locator - RBC Royal Bank - Search Results The Royal Bank of Canada RBC pre-dates Confederation. In 2016, it was Canada’s second-largest corporation by revenue, bringing in an estimated $42-billion. The bank has headquarters in Toronto and Montreal. Auto insurance from RBC is available in all provinces and territories except British Columbia, Manitoba and Saskatchewan. A Peterborough, Ont., woman says financial institutions and Interac are misleading customers by claiming e-transfers are "fully protected" after money she sent a friend was diverted to a fraudster's bank account. RBC blamed the theft on a weak email password and security question. A system to transfer money online — used over a million times a day in Canada — is not as safe as it advertises, says a Royal Bank customer who had $1,734 stolen during an e-transfer. The theft occurred after Anne Hoover of Peterborough, Ont., e-transferred money from her RBC account to her friend Fran Fearnley, only to have a fraudster intercept the transaction and divert the money to his own account at another bank. "I thought it was a safe way to send money." An RBC manager says an internal investigation indicated that Fearnley's email account had been hacked, and when Hoover sent the e-transfer, the fraudster figured out the answer for the security question necessary to deposit the money, and then redirected it to a different bank account. An expert in online privacy protection and security says financial institutions have opted for convenience over security, which makes strong email passwords and equally strong e-transfer questions and passwords essential. "How you manage those passwords is very important," says Claudiu Popa, author of and a cybersecurity expert who advises government and companies. "Banks and financial institutions have made it very easy to transfer money via email. Unfortunately, with convenience comes lack of security." Hoover and Fearnley had just returned from a trip to Mexico on March 18, when Hoover went online and used her bank's Interac e-transfer system to reimburse her pal for trip expenses. It wasn't the sun on this Mexican holiday that burned Anne Hoover, centre, and Fran Fearnley, right, the women say, after a $1,734 e-transfer between them was intercepted by a fraudster. (Submitted by Anne Hoover) But when Fearnley opened the email and tried to accept the payment, she got a message saying the e-transfer had already been deposited. The women called RBC's fraud department and a bank employee provided the name of the fraudster, his email, and said he'd transferred the money to a TD Bank account. "This is clearly a complete stranger," says Fearnley. " The two friends headed to their local RBC branch, where they are both customers — Hoover, for more than 30 years. The bank blamed the theft on Fearnley's email security. Hoover's security question to her friend was: "Who is my favourite Beatle? Eventually, the manager offered Hoover half the missing funds as a "gesture of goodwill." Hoover filed a report with Peterborough police, but an officer told her that it's difficult to clamp down on online fraud and her fight to recoup the money could take ages and would likely be fruitless. " The fraudster would have had a one in four chance of getting it right — John, Paul, George or Ringo. Hoover says she feels misled by the bank's website. In a test of RBC's Interac system, Go Public was given four chances to answer the security question correctly. A webpage about RBC's digital security tells customers they're "fully protected" and will be reimbursed "for any unauthorized transactions." But when Hoover pointed that out to bank officials, she was told customers aren't protected if they use weak passwords when transferring funds online. In a statement, AJ Goodman, RBC's director of external communications, wrote: "As part of our electronic access agreement, clients commit to using passwords and security questions that are unique and cannot be easily guessed or obtained by others." That information is on the bank's website, but only if a customer reading RBC's "Security Guarantee" clicks on a few different links to get to a clause in the fine print of a section called "Security." Interac makes the same security promises online as RBC, telling customers in bold print that they are "protected from fraud losses." No one from Interac would agree to an interview with Go Public, directing questions to RBC. In a statement, the company's senior manager of external communications, Adrienne Vaughan, wrote that Canadians must "protect their email and passwords so they do not fall victim to cybercrime and they can safely transact online." In another, similar case, Dr. Sylvia Veith of Prince Albert, Sask., lost $7,000 when she used Interac to e-transfer money to her son's hockey league in June 2017. That money was intercepted and her bank — RBC — blamed a weak password to a security question and told the physician there was nothing that could be done. RBC would not comment on Veith's case, except to reiterate the importance of strong passwords. "This idea of transferring money by email is much more risky than people realize," says Popa. "Companies don't report [incidents] because they don't want an investigation from the privacy commissioner, from other regulatory bodies." Popa says people have been desensitized to the risk of email transfers "very quickly, almost too quickly" because they use email all the time, so they figure it's safe. What banks and other financial institutions have done, he says, is sacrifice security to get a high number of people using the system. Last year in Canada, there were more than 371 million e-transfers worth more than $132 billion, according to Interac Corp., the biggest online funds transfer service in the country. The Canadian Anti-Fraud Centre told Go Public that it received 163 reports in 2018 involving e-transfers that were compromised, resulting in money being transferred to fraudsters. Popa did a quick search of Fearnley's email on a website that tracks data breaches and reports almost eight billion occasions when personal accounts have been exposed. The same email address could be acquired from several different sources. Popa found her email was compromised on two sites when hackers attacked Linked In and "That means people have found those e-mail lists. "Different people have taken what they've needed from those lists, and that's how they got compromised, very likely." The cybersecurity expert says financial institutions and Interac need to require something called "two-factor authentication" to better protect people's accounts. "Every time you log into an account you need to use a second factor," explains Popa. "A code that arrives as a text message or as a separate email to a different email address that is only valid for a few seconds or a few minutes after it's received." He says the financial industry knows more security is needed, but is more concerned about getting customers to use the e-transfer system. Some financial institutions offer two-factor authentication as an option, not a requirement. Go Public asked RBC and Interac why they don't require two-factor authentication. Hoover says she's learned the hard way that strong security questions and passwords are crucial. She's escalating her case to the RBC Ombudsman, hoping to prompt the bank to better warn customers they could be liable for losses even if they're victims of fraud. She's also closing her business account at RBC, after decades of loyalty. "How can I feel confident [in RBC] when, in fact, I've had money stolen from me — clearly stolen," says Hoover. "This isn't secure, and people need to know." Submit your story ideas Go Public is an investigative news segment on CBC-TV, radio and the web. We tell your stories and hold the powers that be accountable. Erica Johnson is an award-winning investigative journalist. We want to hear from people across the country with stories you want to make public. She hosted CBC's consumer program Marketplace for 15 years, investigating everything from dirty hospitals to fraudulent financial advisors. As co-host of the CBC news segment Go Public, Erica continues to expose wrongdoing and hold corporations and governments to account. 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